Karadeniz International Scientific Journal

This is an internationally refereed social science journal that is published every three months (quarterly) in electronic-based and print-based since 2009. The journal publishes four issues each year (March, June, September, and December).

The publication language of this journal is Turkish, English, or Russian.

This is an open-access journal. Therefore, all issues and articles published so far can be accessed free of charge from the journal's website.



Mustafa KALKAN

Foreign cultural generations, which they included, virtually erased the Mongols from the map sociologically within a period of a hundred years. He changed their religion, cut them off from their way of life, made them forget their clothing style, and created a society that turned into moderate Muslims who did not obey the law. The Mongols became Manichean-Buddhist in China, became a dervish in Iran, Nestorized in Central Asia, and disappeared in the Finnish-Oghur-Slavic-Kipchak geography. Throughout his life, he learned trade, embraced urban life, understood that sharing the management in local administrations brought success, and made nations live together in peace with religious tolerance. By learning trade from the settled peoples they invaded, they became rich with the poll taxes they received, the toll taxes of caravans on the Silk Road, the Spice Road, the Northern Road, and the prices paid by ships coming through the Black Sea. In the countries they conquered, they had bilingual coins minted and converted the taxes collected in kind into cash amounts based on precious metals. In the early periods, commercial viability was weak and coins with bad features were cut because the masters were not good. Later, the economy revived and dinars, dirhams and fels began to be cut in regular, high-definition and magnificent compositions that could compete with the great states.

Our research aims to demonstrate how a nation that challenged the world with its military skills changed its way of life and became urbanized over the course of history. It reveals that nomadic life came to its knees against city life, and that trade and money gradually ripped the Mongols from their roots. During this process, it will be seen that the Mongols, who used the Uyghur script on their coins, later preferred Arabic, Persian, Slavic, Armenian, Georgian and Turkish dialects as inscriptions on their coins. 22 coins belonging to the Great Mongols (Genghisids) and the Chagataids will be examined, and their technical-typological comparisons will be made with the coins of the Ilkhanate and the Golden Horde. The traces of the economy on social life and socio-cultural change have been tried to be discussed through coins.

Keywords: Mongols, Chagatai, Ilkhans, Golden Horde, coin.

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