Karadeniz International Scientific Journal

This is an internationally refereed social science journal that is published every three months (quarterly) in electronic-based and print-based since 2009. The journal publishes four issues each year (March, June, September, and December).

The publication language of this journal is Turkish, English, or Russian.

This is an open-access journal. Therefore, all issues and articles published so far can be accessed free of charge from the journal's website.



Levent ÜNAL

The National Struggle is undoubtedly one of the most excellent examples of implementation of the strategy, which means the attainment of a strategic goal determined by applying the most appropriate methods and styles of action of the existing forces (power factors) at the national level. Mustafa Kemal, the leader of the National Struggle, successfully concluded the National Struggle by carrying out an impossibility in all the adverse conditions in the period.

Mustafa Kemal, who predetermined the National Struggle strategy, began implementing the process in progressive aspect, beginning with Samsun. Hence, in all the subsequent process, events did not develop depending on coincidence, but largely in the way that Mustafa Kemal envisioned. The most important factor that made the national struggle strategy successful was this proactive approach. Expanding the powers of the inspectorship, laying down the principles of national struggle with Amasya circular, enabling national integrity with the Erzurum and Sivas Congresses, establishing the Parliament and putting the National Struggle on the ground of full legal legitimacy, putting the strategy of total war into practice (with the orders of the Tekalif-i Milliye), involving the nation as a whole in the struggle, avoiding directly targeting the Sultan until the sultanate was abolished, preventing differences of opinion, etc. many attitudes and initiatives constituted the turning points of Mustafa Kemal's proactive approach.

One of the factors that makes the National Struggle unique is because it achieved a glorious victory as the Turkish nation experienced its darkest period. Mustafa Kemal started by putting forward a great goal in an environment where many parts of the country are under occupation, the Sultanate and Government of Istanbul are in full surrender to the entente powers, intellectuals were looking for a solution under American and British auspices, some people were trying to show resistance limited to the region they lived in and the nation was desperately waiting for what would happen to them. That goal was to "establish a fully independent new Turkish state based on national sovereignty." The target was large but the current forces to be directed at the target were insufficient. Years of war and heavy defeats left the nation tired and exhausted, the army largely demobilized. Weapons and ammunition were depleted, the rest were collected, and were still being collected. Apart from the local small resistance movements, no one had the idea of resisting at the national level, and the supporters of the sultanate and the caliphate were against the National Struggle. So neither the current forces were compatible with the set goal, nor were the conditions conducive to implementing any course of action. Nevertheless, victory was a product of Mustafa Kemal's genius in strategy.

Keywords: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, National Struggle Strategy, War Strategy, Sakarya Pitched Battle Strategy, Great Offensive Combat Strategy.

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