ARCHITECTURAL DECORATIONS FROM SINOPE: Kymation, Anthemion, Leaf and Bead-and-Reels


The aim of this study is to evaluate the architectural decorations such as ionic and lesbian kymation, anthemion, leaf and bead-and-reels which have been identified in Sinope, with a scientific observation. In addition to detailed descriptions of architectural decorations, topics such as the style criticism and dating suggestions of these decorations were included in the study. Since the use of modern settlements and spolia in the city reduces the number of architectural elements, the decorations that make up our subject can be defined with a limited number of examples. Although the number is limited, the examples in question provide general but important information about the architectural decorations applied in the city. Architectural decorations, which were in a typological and stylistic development and change, proved that there was an important local workshop in the city, starting  from the Archaic Period to the end of the Severus Period and this workshop was able to follow and apply the popular architectural decorations of the period. When architectural embellishments are generally evaluated, it is possible to say that thecity workshop has a quality, meticulous and clean workmanship from early to late. In the general decoration area, the motifs are lively, moving and light-shade effective, and harmony and symmetry among the motifs are noteworthy. It is observed that the empty spaces between the embellishments, which have a clean workmanship, were also smoothly burnished. In addition to standard practices, this local workshop has been observed to have its own, standardized practices.

Keywords: Paphlagonia, Sinope, Architectural decoration, kymation, anthemion, leaf, bead-and-reel.