FOUNDATIONS OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION AND PROCESSES OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

Vesile ŞEMŞEK

Islamic Civilization is the common definition of the civilization created by the nations who adopted this religion by being under the influence of Islam. This civilization cannot be examined separately in the history of the nations that accepted Islam, nor can it be examined as a civilization in its own right. Because there is an Islamic religion, but there is no independent Islamic Civilization. This is because Islam is not the religion of a nation, it is a religion that stands up to all humanity. For this reason, Islamic Civilization means Arab - Turkish - Iranian civilizations. This is the case in science, poetry, literature, architecture. Only in law, Islamic civilization has its own special characteristic. In the military and administrative system, the influence of the Turks is great.

The legal aspect of Islamic Civilization constitutes the most important aspect of this civilization. Islam, which is based on an absolute Brotherhood, removes the division of Muslims and introduces new and sound moral principles. At the same time, Islam can be described as a civilization of morality. 

By introducing new rules to the communities and state order within the Islamic civilization, every form of art and administration has been generalized within this civilization and collectively refers to the Islamic Civilization. In the meantime, there have been advances in various branches of art, although painting and sculpting are forbidden in Islam and have not gained any development, great advances have been gained in the field of architecture. Islamic Civilization gained great progress in the field of science through Turkish, Arab and Persian scientists, and led to the growth of scientists who left their mark in European and Asian countries during the Middle Ages.

The ultimate goal of this scientific research we have prepared is to uncover the scientific and cultural values that Islam adds to different civilizations. In addition, the Islamic Civilization, which is also a moral civilization, is to convey the information about the activities in the historical development process to the peoples living in the whole Islamic geography. 

Keywords: civilization, history, Turkish, Islam, art, basic, development, process