BLACK SEA TRADE IN THE MIDDLE AGES IN THE PERIOD OF MONGOLS, GOLDEN HORDE AND ILKHANID STATES

Önder GÜLER

According to the decision taken in 1235 or 1237 Cengiz Khan's Mongolian congress, the conquest of some land on the banks of the Don River and Black Sea was decided and the lands below the Danube River were included in Orda, which was named Cuci Nation. As a matter of fact, after the death of Genghis Khan, his conquest was continued by his sons and grandchildren and a great Mongol-Turkish Khanate was established with the establishment of various khanates on the lands that were dominated. Consequently, Hulagu, one of the descendants of Cengiz, founded the State of Ilkhanians under the domination of Iran, Georgia and Anatolia, the center of which was Meraga, and established by Batu as a result of the domination obtained in the north of the Deşt-i Kıpçak, Crimea, Idil and the Caucasus which The Golden Army Khanate was an important state established by the descendants of Cengiz, who was politically and economically active in and around the Black Sea. Particularly towards the middle of the XIII century, some lands in the north and south of the Black Sea basin were ruled by these two important khanates of the Mongols. The land disputes between these two khanates and their impact on the Black Sea trade, as well as the trade relations between the Golden Horde and Ilkhanians with the Italian trade cities of Venice and the Genoese are very important in terms of Black Sea trade history. Therefore, in this study, we tried to examine the contributions of the Mongols and their descendants to the Blacku Sea coast, their acquaintance with the sea and their contributions to the land and sea trade over the Black Sea.

Key Words: Trade of Black Sea, Mongols, Golden Horde, Ilkhanians.