Sociology in Turkey institutional entity in university has been more than 100 years. The intellectual life effect of sociology has exceeded 150 years. During the Ottoman period, Sociology lessons in Darülfünun, it started first with Ahmet Şuayp’s lessons, than the process has continued with Ziya Gökalp’s “İlm-i İctimâi/İctimâiyyat” lessons in 1914. Today, there are dozens of sociology departments at Turkey. Saint Simon (1760-1825), Auguste Comte (1798-1857), Karl Marx (1818-1883), Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) or like Max Weber (1864-1920) mainstream sociology representatives in the World such as, they are also effective in sociology mainstreams in Turkey. Cahit Tanyol (1914- …) has been continued with the Nurettin Şazi Kösemihal after the Ziya GökalpHilmi Ziya Ülken line in the tradition of İstanbul Sociology. Şerif Mardin (1927-2017) is the founder of Hermeneutic Sociology in Turkey. This sociology is embodying the understanding and explanation approach. It effected by American sociology which began to become widespread in the 1950s. 1950s is period of the world leadership based on the military, political and economic power of the United States after the Second World War. Another mainstream sociology tradition in Turkey is tradition of Ankara Sociology. İstanbul, Ankara and Hermeneutic Sociology in Turkey are three mainstream way of sociology. A comparative review of Cahit Tanyol and Şerif Mardin’s sociologies, debate this mainstreams sociologies, seek solutions for current questions and problems. This comparison give us features of mainstream sociologies in Turkey. This is also give research area that is give the conditions of thinking and practising “Native Sociology” that benefiting from Western social sciences and sociology. “Native Sociology” is independent, autonomous, local and also it has territorial and national qualifactions.
Keywords: Turkish Sociology, İstanbul Sociology, Hermeneutic Sociology, Native Sociology, Cahit Tanyol, Şerif Mardin.