AN EVALUATION ON THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE GOLDEN HORDE STATE IN THE PRE-OTTOMAN PERIOD

Önder GÜLER

One of the new political formations of the Mongol invasion jarring Asia and Asia Minor with the 1220s is the Golden Horde Empire. Batu Khan, the grandchild of Chingiz and the son of Cuci, was at the forefront of this great empire, including the Bulgarian Turks on the shores of the Volga, the Kipchaks, Khazars, Slavs, Harezm in the southern Russian steppes, provinces in the Caspian region and Caucasian countries. As a matter of fact, in 1257, Batu Khan's brother Berke Khan would pass the board, accepting Islam and making important alliances, both politically and economically, contributing to the Golden Horde in this sense. In addition to the Chagatay princes on one side and the Ilkhanid ruler Hülagü on the other side, the other side would establish diplomatic relations starting from the time of Sultan Baybars with the Egyptian-Syrian Mamluk empire, which was in a serious struggle with the Iranian Mongols in Syria. From this point of view, we also try to examine some of the diplomatic relations that the Golden Horde State revealed in the process of nationalization.

Key words: Golden Horde, Russians, Mamluks, Seljuks, Byzantine.