Population is a strategic factor which influences all fields of life (production, consumption, transportation, education, substructure, industrialization, development, economy, politics, culture, etc.). This factor has prompted states to learn how much population they have since the ancient times. The eagerness to learn the number of the population was closely related to the state planning, namely, achieving the political, military, social and economical objectives. Until 20th century, the number of the population of a state had been accepted as equivalent to the military power. However, from this date on, the qualities of the population started to come into prominence, rather than its quantities. The Republic of Turkey conducted the first general census in 1927. In this period, Turkey came out of the long lasting wars and started to barely recuperate in terms of population. The subsequent census was conducted in 1935. Being more effective of the political stability compared to the one in 1927, taking precautions for preventing epidemics and the propaganda activities towards population growth showed up concretely in the census conducted in 1935. Hence, the second census showed that the population increased by 2,5 million when compared to the first one. In this study, the second general census of the Republic of Turkey which was conducted in 1935 will be discussed in the light of the documents of the archieves and the newspapers of that period.

Key Words: Turkey, population, census, statistics, 1927 census, 1935 census.