Today Posof is an administrative entity of the province of Ardahan. It is on the route that connects Anatolia to Georgia and the Caucasus. Posof and its environment had been the residential area of the Persian, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad, Seljuk, Ilkhanid, Karakoyuns, Aqqoyunlu, Timurid, Samtskhe Atabeyleys and Ottoman civilizations. It became the part of Ottoman state after the battle of Childir on 9th August, 1578. In this study we identified and evaluated the socio-economic structure of the Guney region (sunny area) of Posof Sanjak of Childir province according the Ottoman State Recordings: “Defteri Mufassal Vilayet-i Gürcistan” dated 1595. According to this Recordings, in the south region of Posof Sanjak there were: 1 Rabati Castle, 47 villages, 29 hamlets. There were totally 441 households and all of them were inhabited in villages. In the south region the main production was: wheat, barley, rye. Besides, piggy, sheep and also apiculture was developed in the region At the end of our study, texts in modern Turkish transcript from Old Turkish (Ottoman) and written in Arabic alphabet of Guney Region in Posof District have been presented.
Key Words: Anatolia, Childir Province, Posof District (Sanjak), Guney Region (Sunny area), Rabat Castle.