SHAMANISM UNDER THE PRESSURE OF THE UNIVERSAL RELIGIONS An Historical Outlook

Mustafa ÜNAL

When Shamanism or with its other calling kamcılık was in its process of being institutionalization ages in terms of taking rites and ritual forms regarding to its historical and cultural milieu, was/has been regarded as open enemy and brutually prosecuted by those countries who were representing Far and Middle Eastern religions i.e. Buddhism, Christianity and Islam for their political interests in fact, for centuries. Although heavy campaigns of the religions in question against the shamans/shamanism, it resembled itself to the dominant religion in which it had tried to be live, in a new form which is called as popular religion by sociology. While the shamanism is seen as para-religious phenomenon in a new syncretic form, high religions have continiously been prosecuting them. In this paper, Christian, Islamic and Buddhistic attitudes towards Shamanic beliefs and practices will be handled from the thereotical and phenomenological points of view.

Key Words: Religious and Political Prosecution, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Shamanism (Kamcılık).